Laser cutting refers to the use of a focused high-power-density laser beam to illuminate a workpiece, causing the irradiated material to rapidly melt, vaporize, ablate, or reach a burning point, while cutting the molten material by means of a high-speed airflow coaxial with the beam, thereby cutting the workpiece. Laser cutting is one of the hot cutting methods. Laser cutting works by directing the output of a high-power laser most commonly through optics. The [laser optics] and CNC (computer numerical control) are used to direct the material or the laser beam generated. There are three main types of lasers used in laser cutting. The CO2 laser is suited for cutting, boring, and engraving. The neodymium(Nd) and neodymium yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers are identical in style and differ only in application. Nd is used for boring and where high energy but low repetition are required. The Nd:YAG laser is used where very high power is needed and for boring and engraving. Both CO2 and Nd/Nd:YAG lasers can be used for welding.
According to the different laser generators, the more conventional laser cutting machines on the market can be roughly divided into three types: CO2 laser cutting machine, YAG (solid) laser cutting machine and fiber laser cutting machine.Among them, CO2 laser cutting machine is more suitable for non-metal. It can cut non-metallic materials such as wood, acrylic, PP and plexiglass with high quality, but the photoelectric conversion rate of CO2 laser is only about 10%, which is a waste of resources. Uniformly cut special parts, advertising, decoration and other non-metallic materials with a thickness of not more than three millimeters and a non-metallic material of not more than twenty millimeters are more suitable for CO2 laser cutting machines. The machining of workpieces with complex cutting contours but small quantities is also suitable for CO2 laser cutting machines, which saves the cost and cycle of manufacturing molds.
YAG (solid) laser cutting machine has the characteristics of low price and good stability, but the energy efficiency is generally less than 3%. At present, the output power of the product is mostly below 800W. Due to the small output energy, it is mainly used for punching and thin plate cutting.
Fiber laser cutting machine is a laser cutting machine which uses fiber laser generator as light source. It is a new type of fiber laser which produces high energy density laser beam and gathers on the surface of the workpiece. It can melt and gasify the area illuminated by the ultra-fine focus spot instantaneously, and realize automatic cutting by moving the spot illumination position through the numerical control mechanical system. Compared with gas lasers and solid-state lasers, they have obvious advantages. They have gradually developed into important candidates in high-precision laser processing, lidar systems, space technology, laser medicine and other fields. Optical fiber laser cutting machine can be used for both plane cutting and oblique cutting, and its edge is neat and smooth. It is suitable for high precision cutting such as metal plate. At the same time, the mechanical arm can be used for three-dimensional cutting instead of the original imported five-axis laser. Compared with ordinary carbon dioxide laser cutting machine, it can save space and gas consumption, and has high photoelectric conversion rate. All in all, Fiber laser cutting machine is a new energy-saving and environmental protection product. (Reference: Wikipedia, 360 Encyclopedia)